View of rapids in the Potomac River at sunset, at Great Falls Park, Virginia.

Adventure Guide to Great Falls Park

Photo: Jon Bilous/Shutterstock

Check out the year-round activity options at this dynamic NPS site that punctuates the Washington, D.C. metro area.

Great Falls Park may not be big, but it packs a punch. The 800-acre National Park Service unit protects the Potomac River at its most dramatic as it narrows from almost 1,000-feet wide to just 100, constricting the flow into a rush through the craggy Mather Gorge. There, the river drops 76 feet in elevation throughout the mile-long canyon, resulting in a near-constant display of cascades and waterfalls trapped between stone walls. Human history surrounding Great Falls dates back 10,000 years with evidence of Paleo-Americans inhabiting the banks. Indigenous peoples, such as the Powhatan and Haudenosaunee, used the falls as a meeting destination until the 1700s. Today, the combination of water, rock and land makes Great Falls a legitimate multi-sport destination, as the park protects more than 15 miles of trails, countless expert whitewater features, and more than 150 climbing routes. And it all sits less than 15 miles northwest of our nation’s capital, making the northern Virginia park a popular respite for denizens of D.C., and a legitimate day- or weekend trip for those farther afield. Views of the gorge along the trails open up in the winter, but Great Falls is a popular destination year-round. 


There are 15 miles of trails within the park, offering hikers a chance to explore the rocky outcroppings of Mather Gorge and take in the waterfalls of the Potomac from scenic overlooks. The River Trail is the highlight of the system, running 1.5 miles one-way, along the top of the cliffs above the Potomac. The hiking is difficult and requires some rock scrambling in certain sections, but the views from the 75-foot cliffs are worth the effort. History buffs should follow the 1.25-mile (one-way) Patowmack Canal Trail, which explores the remains of one of the first canals ever constructed in the U.S. It’s an easy, level walk that also delivers hikers to three overlooks of the falls within the gorge. More info:


The whitewater inside Mather Gorge is not for the inexperienced, as some of the rapids are rated V+ (since 1975, at least 30 people have drowned here). But for the advanced whitewater paddler, the Potomac’s Great Falls section is a wonderland of waterfalls and surf waves. Most kayakers follow the “Virginia Line” through the gorge, a half-mile stretch with three big Class V rapids that ends with a 20-foot waterfall. More info:

Kayakers kayaking waterfalls at Great Falls National Park, Virginia Photo: Orhan Cam/Shutterstock


Great Falls is one of the more comprehensive top-rope areas in Northern Virginia, with routes that range from 5.0 to 5.14. The majority of rock climbing is best for beginners and intermediates as most routes fall in the 5.5 to 5.9 realm. All of the climbing is top-rope or traditional as no permanent anchors are allowed. Routes are single-pitch, from 25 to 60 feet tall. Start exploring your options at The Sandbox, a beginner-friendly crag with a sandy floor on the edge of the river. Sandbox Corner, a 5.4 where two rock walls converge, is the quintessential beginner’s climb. The 5.7 Romeo’s Ladder might be the most-classic local route as a wide crack climb that rises above the popular River Trail. Because of its accessibility and variety of top-rope routes, Great Falls is a popular outlet for rock climbing instruction. Blue Ridge Mountain Guides has a permit to guide climbs within the park. 

Need To Know 

There is an entrance fee to Great Falls Park ($20 per car; $10 for pedestrians or bicyclists). The park is only open from 7 a.m. to sunset and there is no camping within the park’s boundaries. (The closest public camping to the park is Lake Fairfax Park Campground, which has sites near a 20-acre lake starting at $30 a night.)

Nearby Notables

Great Falls Park is part of a complex of public land along the Potomac River throughout greater Washington, D.C. Just across the Potomac, on the Maryland side of the river, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park runs for 184 miles, tracing the Potomac with a bike-friendly towpath. Between Great Falls and D.C., sits the 100-acre Carderock Recreation Area, which has its own climbing and hiking opportunities. And within the District, Theodore Roosevelt Island has 3 miles of trails that are popular with hikers and trail runners alike. 

All articles are for general informational purposes.  Each individual’s needs, preferences, goals and abilities may vary.  Be sure to obtain all appropriate training, expert supervision and/or medical advice before engaging in strenuous or potentially hazardous activity.